GSA FD – Grounding System Analysis in Frequency Domain

GSA FD is a computation code for design and analysis of grounding systems in the frequency domain 0 – 1 MHz, developed by SINT Ingegneria Srl. GSA FD considers both European standards (EN 61936-1:2010 and EN 50522:2010) and American standard (IEEE Std 80™-2000).

GSA FD is able to analyse the frequency domain performance of extensive earthing systems composed of more distinct electrodes of any shape with a high detail level. The graphical (from AutoCAD ® “dxf” files) and numerical input data, the optimised and validated computation algorithms, the powerful graphical facilities render GSA FD an indispensable tool for grounding system design and verification, when the longitudinal impedance of the conductors are significant.

Moreover, GSA FD considers both resistive and inductive coupling between conductors.

GSA FD includes a module to calculate uniform or double layer soil equivalent models starting from measured soil resistivity data.

The buried electrodes can be realized with solid or hollow and coated or bare conductors connected in arbitrary way.

GSA_FD is one of the most powerful and general software on the market for grounding system analysis and can be used to solve electromagnetic compatibility or interference problems due to resistive, capacitive and inductive coupling in the earth or cathodic protection problems involving extensive coated and uncoated buried structure.

GSA_FD is also useful to calculate magnetic field due to grounding systems or buried cables and can be used to investigate the effectiveness of passive loop mitigation systems.



  • Electrical data (e.g. injected current, impressed or induced EMF, operative frequency, additional longitudinal impedances, reference standard, intervention time of protections, eventually additional resistance between feet and ground surface, etc.)
  • Geometrical data (e.g. grounding system layout and topology, conductors section, coating thickness, material properties etc.)
  • Physical data (e.g. soil resistivity or apparent resistivity measured values, soil electrical permittivity, superficial thin layer characteristics, etc.)



  • Decrement factor (Df) as per IEEE standard
  • Split factor (r) as per EN standard or (Sf) as per IEEE standard
  • Earthing current
  • Minimum cross section of grounding system conductors for thermal specification
  • Double layer model soil parameters from on site measurements values of apparent resistivity
  • Reduction factor of touch and step voltages due to a superficial thin layer (Cs) as per IEEE standard
  • Maximum permissible touch and step voltages as per EN and IEEE standards. With European standard it is also possible to calculate the permissible touch voltage without presence of human body considering the body resistance (Rb 50%) and possibly additional resistance between feet and ground surface
  • Ground impedance and Ground Potential Rise values of all electrodes
  • Distribution of leakage current from the electrodes with 2D and 3D graphical representation to verify the contribution and the efficiency of grounding system portions
  • Maximum electric field value close to the electrodes (useful to quickly check if the soil ionization phenomenon can occur)
  • Distribution of longitudinal current (transferred or induced) on the electrodes with 2D and 3D graphical representation
  • Distribution of potential (transferred or induced) on the electrodes with 2D and 3D graphical representation
  • Soil surface potentials and touch and step voltages distributions on superficial straight line or rectangular area by 2D and 3D coloured graphic representations, for individuation of safe and hazardous areas
  • Magnetic field distributions on horizontal straight line or rectangular area by 2D and 3D coloured graphic representations, for individuation of safe and hazardous areas
  • List of material used for grounding system (wires and rods)
  • Orthographic projections or isometric representations of grounding system



  • Finite element analysis of grounding systems of any shape, with choice of number of elementary sources to be considered
  • Possibility to consider or exclude the inductive coupling between elements
  • Possibility to consider more than one grounding system on the same calculation, including for instance return electrodes, transmission line grounding systems or floating potential underground electrodes
  • Characterization of soil as uniform or double layer model horizontal or vertical. Beyond this, a superficial thin layer can be added
  • Possibility to consider electrodes encased in concrete or buried in treated soil to lower resistivity
  • Libraries with typical properties of soil, soils covering, conductors and insulating materials
  • Possibility to export graphic outputs to other WINDOWS® applications
  • Possibility to choose the language

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